In the case of the BubbleCPAP, positive pressure is applied to the airways during inspiration and expiration. Pressure is generated through the expired breathing gas being directed into a water container (bubbler). A dip tube (surge chamber) is on the end of the expiratory ventilation tube. The level of the CPAP pressure depends on how deep the end of the cylinder is immersed into the sterile water.
This simple CPAP system was used for the first time in the early 1970s (
It consists only of:
The mechanisms of action of the CPAP pressure are: